Differences between Blacks and Whites

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Whites & Blacks 100 FACTS (and one Lie) By Roger Roots

SenatorBilbo's Warning "If our buildings, our highways, and our railroads should be wrecked, we could rebuild them. If our cities should be destroyed, out of the very ruins we could erect newer and greater ones. Even if our armed might should be crushed, we could rear sons who would redeem our power. But if the blood of our White race should become corrupted and mingled with the blood ofAfrica, then the present greatness of the United States of America wouldbe destroyed and all hope for civilization would be as impossible for a Negroid America as would be redemption and restoration of the Whiteman's blood which had been mixed with that of the Negro."

(Senator Theodore G. Bilbo, of Mississippi in 1947)

In the pages of this booklet are found 100 facts, the vast majority of which can be easily verified in any set of encyclopedias, almanacs, psychology text, and other reference materials commonly found in any public library.

THE LIE

Cleverly hidden within these hundred facts, for added incentive to read onward, is one lie. not a lie of statistical or grammatical error, but aludicrous falsehood at once so absurd as to strike the reader as an insult to human intelligence, and yet so deadly evil that if allowed to go unanswered its final cost would be incalculable. I sincerely pledge that my motivationsare not of insult or hatred, but of the deepest love for mankind and the truest concern for its future generations. my purpose is not to deceive but to enlighten, and I hope this work will help you reflect and reexamine your views on race.

FACT #1: The White race has crossed seas, harnessed rivers, carved mountains, tamed deserts, and colonized the most barren icefields. It has been responsible for the invention of the printing press, cement, the harnessing of electricity, flight, rocketry, astronomy, the telescope, space travel, firearms, the transistor, radio, television, the telephone, the lightbulb, photography, motion pictures, the phonograph, the electric battery, the automobile, the steam engine, railroad transportation, the microscope, computers,and millions of other technological miracles. It has discovered countless medical advances, incredible applications, scientific progress, etc. Its members have included such greats as Socrates, Aristotle, Plato, Homer,Tacitus, Julius Ceaser, Napoleon, William the Conqueror, Marco Polo, Washington, Jefferson, Hitler, Bach, Beethoven, Mozart, Magellan, Columbus, Cabot, Edison, GrahamBell, Pasteur, Leeuwenhoek, Mendel, Darwin, Newton, Galileo, Watt, Ford, Luther, Devinci, Poe, Tennyson, and thousands upon thousands of other notable achievers. (37) (39)

FACT #2: Throughout 6,000 years of recorded history, the Black African Negro has invented nothing. Not a written language, weaved cloth, a calendar,a plow, a road, a bridge, a railway, a ship, a system of measurement, or even the wheel. (Note: This is in reference to the pure-blooded Negro). He is not known to have ever cultivated a single crop or domesticated a single animal for his own use (although many powerful and docile beasts abounded around him). His only known means of transporting goods was on the top of his hard burry head. For shelter he never progressed beyond the common mud hut, the construction of which a beaver or muskrat is capable.(21) (39)

INTELLIGENCE

FACT #3: The I.Q.'s of American Negroes are from 15 to 20 points,on average, below those of American Whites. (26) (16) (18) (22)

FACT #4: These Black\White differences have been demonstrated repeatedly by every test ever conducted by every branch of the U.S. Military, every state, county, and local school board, the U.S. Dept. of Education, etc. The same ratio of difference has held true over a 40 year period. (18) (26)(24)

FACT #5: With an average I.Q. of 85, only 16% of Blacks score over 100, while half the White population does. The Negro overlap of White median I.Q.'s ranges from 10 to 25 percent-- equality would require 50 percent.(31) (27) (16)

FACT #6: Blacks are 6 times as likely to have I.Q.'s of 50 to 70 which put them in the slow learner (retarded) category, while Whites are ten times more likely to score 130 or over. (15) (16) (18) (23)

FACT # 7: The U.S. government's PACE examination, given to 100,000 university graduates who are prospective professional or administrative civil-service employees each year, is passed with a score of 70 or aboveby 58% of the whites who take it but by only 12% of the Negroes. Among top scorers the difference between Negro and White performance is even morestriking: 16% of the white applicants make scores of 90 or above, while only one-fifth of one percent of a Negro applicants score as high as 90--a White/Black success ration of 80/1. (27)

FACT #8: Differences between Negro and White children increase with chronological age, the gap in performance being largest at the high school and college levels. (31) (26)

FACT #9: White/Negro I.Q. differences are constantly excused as results of environmental variations, but at least five studies that have attempted to equate socio-economic backgrounds of the two races indicate no significant change in relative results. As environment improves, the Negro does better but so does the White. The gap is not decreased. (26) In fact, extensive research by DR. G.J. McGurk, associate Professor of Psychology at Villanove University, reveals that the gap in intelligence between Blacks and Whites INCREASES where socio-economic levels of both races are raised to the middle classes. (18)

FACT #10: In 1915, Dr. G.W. Ferfuson took 1000 school children in Virginia, divided them into 5 racial categories, and tested them for mental aptitude. On average. full-blooded Negroes scored 69.2% as high as Whites. Three-quarter Negroes scored 73.0% as high as Whites. One-half Negroes scored 81.2% as high as Whites. One-quarter Negroes scored 91.8% as high as Whites. All of these Blacks lived as and considered themselves "Negroes". Their environments and "advantages" or disadvantages were exactlythe same. (14) Also see (26) pg 452.

FACT #11: Results of the Army Beta test given by the U.S. Army to over 386,000 illiterate soldiers in WWI showed Negro draftees to be "inferior to the Whites on all types of tests used in the Army." Additionally, tests were conducted upon pure Negroes, Mulattoes, and Quadroons. It wasfound that "the lighter groups made better scores." (14)

FACT #12: Studies conducted with identical twins raised apart inradically different environments provide conclusive evidence that over-allinfluence of heredity exceeds that of environment in a ratio of about 3 to 1. (41)

FACT #13: Even when Blacks and Whites have the same backgrounds, in terms of family income and childhood advantages, Blacks still have average I.Q. scores 12 to 15 points lower than comparable Whites. This includes cases where Black children have been adopted by White parents. Their I.Q.s may be improved by environment, but they are still closer to their biological parents than their adoptive parents. (3) (15) (26)

FACT #14: Equalitarian ideologists often discount I.Q. test results with the excuse that they are culturally biased. Nonetheless, NO ONE, not the NAACP nor the United Negro College Fund, nor NEA had been able to developan intelligence test which shows Blacks and Whites scoring equally. (15)(42) (3)

FACT # 15: American Indians, who often live in conditions far worse than American Blacks during their entire lives, still consistently outscore them on I.Q. tests. (3) (27)

FACT #16: The offspring of interracial marriages tend to have lower I.Q.s than the white parent. (11) (26)

THE NEGRO BRAIN

FACT #17: Among human races numerous studies have been made of the comparative weight of White and Negro brains with results that fell within the range of about an 8-12 percent lower weight for the Negro brain. Such studies have been conducted by Bean, Pearl, Vint, Tilney, Gordon, Todd,and others. (23) (27)

FACT #18: In addition to the difference in brain weight, the Negro brain grows less after puberty than the white. Though the Negro brain and nervous system mature faster than the white brain, its development is arrested at an earlier age which limits further intellectual advancement. (22) (27)

FACT #19: The thickness of the supragranular layer (the outside layer)of the Negro brain is about 15 percent thinner, and its convolutions are fewer and more simple, on average, than that of the White brain. (9)

FACT #20: The frontal lobes of the Negro brain, responsible for abstract conceptional reasoning, are smaller relative to body weight, less fissured,and less complex than those of the White brain. (9) (27) (23) (22)

ANTHROPOLOGY

FACT #21: The name Homo Sapien was first used by the 18th Century Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus. The word "sapien" means "wise". The name was originally used to speak of the White man and synonymous with"europaeus". As a result, many later taxonomists and geneticists believed that Negroes and other races should be classified as different species. In fact, Darwin declared in The Descent of Man that the varieties of mankind are so distinct that similar differences found in any other animal would warrant their classification in different species, if not different genera. (39)

FACT #22: For his mammoth work, The Origin of Races, Professor CarletonCoon, President of the American Association of Physical Anthropologistsand the premier geneticist of the world, assembled massive evidence from geography, anatomy, genetics, physiology, comparative dentition, linguistics, archeology, and fossil records from 300 bone-bearing sites to verify histheory of pre-sapien racianation". In other words, Homo erectus was divided by race even before evolution into Homo sapien stage. (12)

FACT #23: According to Dr. Coon, while the Caucasoid subspecies (the White race) was evolving in Europe, the Negro race was standing still on the evolutionary plane and is today no less than 200,000 years behind the European in skull and brain development. (9)

FACT #24: The Negro skull, in addition to having a smaller brain volume and thicker cranial bones than that of the White, is prognathous; i.e., the lower face projects forward, rather in the manner of an animal's muzzle. In consequence, the Negro jaw is substantially longer, relativeto its width, than the White jaw. A feature of the Negro lower jaw is its retention of a vestige of the "simian shelf," a bony region immediately behind the incisors. The simian shelf is a distinguishing characteristic of apes, and it is absent in Whites. (9) (12) (39)

FACT #25: The skin of the Negro is thicker and possibly superior to the White's in the way it impedes the penetration of germs and in its protection from the ultraviolet rays of the sun. (39) (14)

FACT #26: The dark color of the Negro is due to melanin pigment which is spread through every layer of the skin and is found even in the muscles and brain. (9) (27)

FACT #27: An African dentist can tell a Negro's tooth from a whiteman's at a glance. (14)

FACT #28: Negroes have arms which are longer, relative to body height, than those of Whites. This feature, together with their much thicker cranial bones, gives Black athletes an advantage over Whites in boxing. The skeletal and muscular peculiarities of Negroes' lower limbs have given them considerable success as sprinters, but have left them relative undistinguished as distance runners. (39) (27)

FACT #29: ADDITIONAL DIFFERENCES

The hair is black, crispy, and "woolly" in texture, it is flat and elliptical with no central canal or duct like the hair of Europeans.

The nose is thick, broad and flat, often turned up nostrils exposingthe red inner lining of the mucous membrane similar to an ape.

The arms and legs of the Negro are relatively longer than the European. The humerus is a trifle shorter and the forearm longer thereby approximating the simian form.

The eyes are prominent, iris black and the orbits large. The eye often has a yellowish sclerotic coat over it like that of a gorilla.

The Negro has a shorter trunk the cross-section of the chest is more circular than whites. The pelvis is narrower and longer as it is in an ape.

The mouth is wide with very thick, large and protruding lips.

Negro skin has a thick superficial horny layer which resists scratchingand impedes the penetration of germs.

The Negro has a larger and shorter neck akin to that of anthropoids.

The cranial sutures are more simple than in the white type and close together earlier.

The ears are roundish, rather small, standing somewhat high and detached thus approaching the simian form.

The Negro is more powerfully developed from the pelvis down and the white more powerfully developed in the chest.

The jaw is larger and stronger and protrudes outward which, along with lower retreating forehead, gives a facial angle of 68 to 70 degrees as opposed to a facial angle of 80 to 82 degrees for Europeans.

The hands and fingers are proportionally narrower and longer. The wrist and ankles are shorter and more robust.

The frontal and paricial bones of the cranium are less excavated and less capacious. The skull is thicker especially on the sides.

The brain of the Negro on the average is 9 to 20% smaller than whites.

The teeth are larger and are wider apart than in the white race.

The three curvatures of the spine are less pronounced in the Negro than in the white and thus more characteristic of an ape.

The femur of the Negro is less oblique, the tibia (shin bone) more curved and bent forward, the calf of the leg high and but little developed.

The heel is broad and projecting, the foot long and broad but slightly arched causing flat soles, the great toe is shorter than in the white.

The two bones proper of the nose are occasionally united, as in apes.

FACT #30: Blood group studies made during WWII suggest the American Negro gene pool is about 28% white. --This despite all manner of institutional discrimination, social segregation, etc. Keep in mind that the results of test from true Black Africans would show even bigger differences from Whites.(32) (14)

CRIME

FACT #31: The rate at which Blacks commit murder is thirteen times that of Whites; Rape and assault, ten times. These figures, as given bythe F.B.I. reports, vary somewhat from year to year but fairly represent the trend for the past decade. (27) (6) (13)

FACT #32: According to the justice Dept, 1 in every 4 Black males between the ages of 20 and 29 is currently in prison or on probation orparole. (32) (6) (3)

FACT #33: Though only 12% of the U.S. population, Blacks commit morethan half of all rapes and robberies and 60% of all murders in the U.S.(32) (27) (6)

FACT #34: Approximately 50% of all Black males will be arrested and charged with a serious felony during their lifetime. (27)

FACT #35: A Black person is 56 TIMES more likely to attack a White person than Vice Versa. (3) (32)

FACT #36: Black rapists choose White victims over half (54.9%) of the time, 30X as often as Whites choose Blacks. (2) (32) (28)

FACT #37: The annual report from the Department of justice show sthat when Whites commit violence they do it to Blacks 2.4% of the time. Blacks, on the other hand, choose White victims MORE THAN HALF the time.(3)

FACT #38: In New York City, any White is over 300 TIMES MORE LIKELY to be assaulted by a gang of Blacks than is a Black by a gang of Whites.(32)

FACT #39: Many people argue that high Black incarceration rates show that police center enforcement at Black crimes and ignore white-collar crimes. However, Blacks commit a disproportionate number of white-collar offenses as well. In 1990, Blacks were nearly 3 times as likely to be arrested forforgery, counterfeiting, and embezzlement as Whites. (32) (6)

FACT #40: Many people believe that crime is a product of poverty and lack of "advantages." However, the District of Columbia, which enjoys the highest average annual salaries and is second only to Alaskain personal income per capita, leads the nation in just about every category of crime including murder, robbery, aggravated assault, and vehicle theft. D.C. also has the country's strictest gun control, highest police costs per capita, highest ration of police and correctional officers per citizen, and highest rate of incarceration. Its permanent population is over 80% Black. West Virginia, which has the nation's lowest crime rate, suffers from chronic poverty and has the highest unemployment in the U.S. It also has the fewest police per capita. West Virginia is over 96% White. (33)

THE BLACK FAMILY

FACT #41 46% of inner city Black men between the ages of 16 and 62are unemployed. (27)

FACT #42: More than 66% of the children of Negroes are born out of wedlock. Per capita, their illegitimacy rate is ten times that of Whites.(32) (27)

FACT #43: Blacks are four and a half times more likely than Whites to be on welfare. (32)

FACT #44: More than 35% of all Black men in U.S. Cities are drugor alcohol abusers. (27)

BEAUTY

FACT #45: The January l986 issue of the journal of Ethnic and Racial Studies, "Skin Color Preference, Sexual Dimorphism and Sexual Selection: a case of Gene-Culture Co-evolution" ? by Peter Frost and Pierre Vander Herghe, stated that in any given race, the women tend to have lighter complexions than the men. Using standard ethnographic files from 51 societieson five continents which have recorded their preference for human skin color,the study found that 30 preferred lighter women and 14 preferred lighter women and lighter men. The cultures of India, China, Brazil and Bali, aswell as the Arabs and Negroes regard the lightest women as the most beautiful.-- perpetuating the aesthetic appeal of the ivory-skinned, rosy-cheeked, blue-eyed, blond "nordic ideal" of feminine beauty- - even thoughthey themselves do not possess the genetic capacity to reproduce such anorganism. Over time, the study said, the upper classes of all races have become lighter-skinned than their fellow countrymen because they have repeatedly skimmed off fairer women from the lower classes. (Also see #11)

FACT #46: Scientific research on what constitutes human beauty, in which 300 judges of various backgrounds were shown portrait photographs and asked to rate the beauty of the individual's face, has revealed that nordic Whites are universally recognized as the most attractive humans, even by Blacks. The judges were instructed to evaluate the faces solely on his or her "personal standards of beauty and not to consider popular norms." The results of the study "Age, Sex, Race, and the Perception of Facial Beauty." Developmental Psychology, 5, Nov., 1971, pp 433-439, are reprinted below.

GROUP BEAUTY RATINGS

IN CROSS AND CROSS STUDY

JUDGES' GROUP GIVENCHARACTERISTICS HIGHEST RATING--------------- --------------Age 7 white males white adolescent males Age 7 black males white adolescent males Age 7 white females white adolescent females Age 12 white males white adolescent femalesAge 12 black males white adolescent females Age 12 white females white adolescent females Age 12 black females white adolescent females Age 17 white males white adolescent females Age 17 black males white adolescent females Age 17 white females white adolescent females Age 17 black females white adolescent females Adult white males white adolescent females Adult black males white adolescent females Adult white females white adolescent males Adult black females white adolescent females

FACT #47: In experiments in which Black children have been left to themselves with White and Black dolls, it has been found that most of them would rather play with White dolls. This is true all over the world. Even in such places as Tobago. (32) (22) (23)

AMERICAN HISTORY

FACT #48: The Declaration of Independence, which contains the oft-repeated phrase ". . . all men are created equal . . ." was written byThomas Jefferson, who owned about 200 slaves at the time and never set anyof them free, including the mulattoes and quadroons. Jefferson's words certainlyhad no reference to Negroes, who at that time had no place in American society except as property. (27) (38) (31)

FACT #49: The Constitution was written by and for 'We the people" and dedicated to "ourselves and our posterity", All of the 55 delegates that met in Philadelphia to draft the Constitution and all of the members of the 13 state conventions that ratified it were of the White race. (38)

WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY OF 1828 defines Posterity as: POSTERITY. 1. Descendants; children, children's children, etc. indefinitely; the race that proceeds from a progenitor. 2. In a general sense, succeeding generations; opposed to ancestors. . .

FACT #50: The 14th Amendment is invalid for the following reasons:

It was never ratified by three-fourth of all the States in the Union according to Article 5 of the U.S. Constitution. Out of 37 States, 16 had rejected it.

Many of the States who were counted as ratifying it, were compelled to do so under duress of military occupation. Any legal act entered intounder force duress, and coercion is automatically null and void.

The fact that 23 Senators had been unlawfully excluded from the U.S. Senate, shows that the Joint Resolution proposing the Amendment was not submitted to or adopted by a constitutional Congress.

The intent of the 14th Amendment is repugnant to the original U.S. Constitution and the Organic Law of the land. It did not, and could not, repeal anything that was part of the Organic Law. Therefore the principlesof precedent and stare decisis render it void. (23)

FACT #51: In Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of Sept. 1862 he said: "I have urged the colonization of the Negroes, (back to Africa), and I shall continue. My Emancipation Proclamation was linked with this plan (of colonization). There is no room for two distinct races of White men in America, much less for two distinct races of Whites and Blacks. . . . I can think of no greater calamity than the assimilation of the negro into our social and political life as our equal . . . Within twenty years we can peacefully colonize the Negro . . . under conditions in which he can rise to the full measure of manhood. This he can never do here. We can never attain the ideal union our fathers dreamed, with millions of analien, inferior race among us, whose assimilation is neither possible nor desirable." (27)

FACT #52: Lincoln actually proposed an amendment to the constitution that would've authorized congress to recolonize all freed Blacks back to Africa. On Aug. 15, l962, Congress did appropriate over half a million dollars for that purpose. Thousands of Negroes had been shipped back when Lincoln was shot. (27)

WASHINGTON D.C.

FACT #53: The District of Columbia, which is approximately 70% Black, leads the U.S. in many areas:

The nations highest crime rates

Strictest gun control

Highest incarceration rates

Highest birthrate

Highest death rate

Highest rate of federal assistance per capita

Highest number of welfare recipients per capita

Highest rate of illegitimacy

Highest high school dropout rate even though its teachers are the highest paid in the U.S.

Highest rate of ghonnorrhea and syphilis

Highest incidence of AIDS (33) (32)

PORTUGAL

FACT #54: Populated by White stock, the nation of Portugal rose infour centuries to be the wealthiest most powerful country in the world.A great commercial and maritime power, it had large colonies in Asia, Africa,and America. Its seamen were the first to explore western Africa and theybrought back hundreds of Negro slaves. By 1550, at the height of Portugal'spower, one-tenth of its population were Blacks. Today, Portugal's populationis described as one of the most homogeneous in Europe, having slowly absorbed the Negro gene pool. As of l975 it had lost all of its outside territories. Its workers are the lowest paid in Europe and they have the highest rate of illiteracy and a high infant mortality rate. In terms of art, literature, music, science and philosophy the "new" Portugal has produced virtually nothing in 100 years and by most standards is the most backward nation in Europe.

*Keep in mind that the Black population of the U.S. is approximately 13%. (27)

HAITI

FACT #55: The Republic of Haiti, the only completely Black republic in the Western Hemisphere also happens to be the poorest country in theWestern Hemisphere. It also has the lowest life expectancy, highest illiteracy, lowest per capita consumption of newsprint, lowest per capita GNP, and the lowest level of political stability. (27)

FACT #56: Haiti once had a promising future. Before 1789 as a French colony under White rule, San Domingo (Haiti) was as rich or richer in productivity as all the 13 American Colonies combined. It was considered the "crownjewel" of the French colonial system, and was in fact the most prosperous colony anywhere in the world. Populated by 40,000 Whites, 27,000 freed Mulattoes,and 450,000 Black slaves and with a bountiful climate and productive soil,it supplied all of France and half of Europe with sugar, coffee, and cotton. But in 1791, the French government issued a decree ordering Haiti to give the vote to the Mulattoes, and soon after another ordering freedom for all the slaves. This resulted in a bloody civil war in which the entire White population (about 40,000 Frenchmen) was murdered, down to the last man, woman, and child. Rape, decapitation, and mutilation were committed almost universally upon their bodies. (22) (23)

FACT #57: After the Blacks massacred the last of the White populationin 1804, Haiti remained a part of Santa Domingo, until 1844 when it becamea separate "republic." Between 1844 and 1915 only one Haitian president completed his term in office. Fourteen were ousted by armed uprisings, one was blown up, one was poisoned and another was hacked to pieces by a mob. Between 1908 and 1915 the revolutions and assassinations increasedso rapidly that a United States military occupation was needed to restoreorder. This lasted from 1915 to 1934. Thereafter followed twelve years of rule by a Mulatto elite which ended in the resumption of control by the Black military in 1946. Since then wholesale corruption and political murder have been the rule. (23)

INDIA

FACT #58: India's Negroid peoples have been subjected to numerous White invasions for over 5000 years, prompting the rise and fall of one civilization after another as the White invaders became absorbed into the non-White masses. Then, about 1800 B.C. Aryans again invaded from the northwest, this time establishing a rigid caste ("varna." meaning color) system of White supremacy which eventually evolved into an integral partof the Hindu religion. Interracial mixing was banned and punishable by death.(5) (37)

FACT #59: Led by an Aryan ruling class, Classical India blossomedinto a great culture, giving expression to philosophy, poetry, science,mathematics, and literature. The land prospered as never before --or after.

FACT #60: The caste system lasted about 2,000 years (probably longerthan any civilization under similar racial circumstances.) However, eventuallythe castes broke down due to miscegenation and by modern times virtuallyno pure Whites were remaining. (39) (37) (10)

FACT #61: Today, India has 834 million people who speak 150 differentlanguages and dialects. When the annual rainfall is insufficient, they dieof starvation at a rate of 2,000,000 to 6,000,000 per year. India has the highest birthrate in Asia, one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world,and an illiteracy rate close to 70%. (35) (33)

EGYPT

FACT #62: Ancient Egypt was founded and built by Mediterranean Caucasiansas far back as 4500 B.C. Egypt's period of greatness was from 3400 B.C.to 1800 B.C. and was characterized by its amazing architecture, pyramids, temples, and mastery of mathematics and engineering, the remnants of which are still evident today. The White Egyptians pioneered medicine, chemistry,astronomy, and law; In many cases, their achievements remain unequalled.(37) (39) (21)

FACT #63: But, about 3400 B.C. Egypt civilization began to spread up the Nile River, bringing it in close contact with the black Nubians to the south. Soon they were using Blacks for slave labor and Egypt became history's first melting pot. (39) (10) (14)

FACT # 64: In time the infusion of Negro blood worked itself up fromthe bottom of Egyptian society. The slaves were eventually freed, received political equality, and took posts of authority in government. (10) (37)

FACT #65: By the time of King Tut (1370-1352 B.C.) even the ruling classes had been mongrelized and Egypt began a tail spin downward. Today,the once-mighty Egypt is very much a Third World country, having lost its art, its medicine, its architectural ability, and its position in world affairs. (10) (37)

The absurd notion that Ancient Egypt was a product of Negro ingenuity is now being widely disseminated in the schools. Though scholars know this is a blatant lie, they justify the deception by assuming it will boost the"self-esteem" of Black children.

SOUTH AFRICA

(Note: These facts will most likely change drastically now that South Africahas fallen under black rule.)

FACT #66: White people have lived in South Africa much longer thanNegroes. There have been White settlements in South Africa for over 300 years, about the same length of time Europeans have lived in North America. Even 150 years after the first colonies around Capetown, at the beginning of the 19th Century, there still were no Blacks within 500 miles. The Blacks wandered in from central Africa later on, possibly fleeing the slave tradeor due to famine. In fact, most of South Africa's Blacks were born in other countries. (29) (8) (14)

FACT #67: South Africa is by far the wealthiest and most advanced country in Africa, producing nearly 75% of the continent's Gross National Product. It is almost completely self- sufficient so boycotts have little affect upon its economy. In fact most of Africa is dependent upon South Africa. South Africa is governed by a Western parliamentary republic and strictly segregated racially. South Africa grants complete self-government to the Blacks in their own areas of the country. (29) (8) (14)

FACT #68: Though South Africa is perpetually criticized by the worldpress for its racial separatism, its Blacks live better than the Blacksof any other African country and are multiplying rapidly and healthily. 87% of Black welfare costs are being paid by the White man. This includes food, clothing, training, housing, education an health care. --even oldage pensions. (14)

FACT #69: Thousands of South African Blacks graduate from college every year, more than three times as many as in the rest of Africa combined. Every Black child is within walking distance of a primary school. Africa's largest hospital, which serves Blacks almost exclusively and performs over 1800 operations per month, is in South Africa. (14)

FACT #70: The Blacks of South Africa own more cars than do all thecitizens of the Soviet Union. (29)

FACT #71: South Africa has more Black doctors, lawyers, professional people, and millionaires than all of the rest of the world combined. (8)

FACT #72: In fact, conditions are "so bad" for Blacks in South Africa that the country has a tremendous problem with illegal Black immigration, having over one million illegal foreign workers. (14) (29)

ICELAND

FACT #73-75: Iceland, the only all-White nation in the world, has the world's highest literacy rate. 100%. It is an island of cooled volcanic magma, located Just south of the Arctic Circle. It has no coal, no fuel, no timber, no mineral wealth or natural resources, and no navigable rivers. 75% of the interior is uninhabitable and only about 1% of the land is arable. It is the youngest nation in Europe and one of the most isolated countriesin the world. Nonetheless, Iceland is #2 in the world in life expectancyand has one of the world's highest standards of living, in terms of percapita income. It has tremendous medical facilities and a thriving publishing business. Virtually every family has a telephone. Upon graduation from high school, each Icelandic student has learned five languages. (33)

MARTIN LUTHER KING

FACT #75-77: On Jan. 31, 1977, Martin Luther King's FBI records were sealed by court order until the year 2027 because, as his wife said, "its release would destroy his reputation" These records are rumored to contain instances of bizarre sexual perversion and homosexuality, and proof that King was under the direct orders of Soviet spies and financed by the Communist Party.

FACT #78: The Wall Street Journal (Nov.9, 1990) disclosed that Stanford University editors of The Papers of Martin Luther King Jr. have long known that King was guilty of plagiarism in his l955 Boston University doctoral thesis, having lifted significant portions from the works of other writers and graduate students.

FACT #79: Martin Luther King frequently enjoyed prostitutes and paid for them with his church's money. Still, congress has voted to make King's birthday a national holiday, in most places replacing Columbus Day or Washington's Birthday as an official observance.

FACT #80: Almost every state in the union has a King holiday, and almost every city has a King Boulevard or King Civic Center. Yet the electoral evidence suggests that Americans will almost always vote down honors for King when given a chance. (41)

MISCELLANEOUS

FACT #81: The entire continent of Africa, perhaps Earth's richest land, accounts for only 3% of world trade. (27)

FACT #82-84: Almost all Blacks who have been leaders in fields other than athletics or music have had some White ancestry: Fredick Douglas, W.E.B.Dubois, Booker T. Washington, George Washington Carver, Alex Hailey, ThurgoodMarshall, Bryant Gumbell, Colin Powell, Carl Rowan, Ed Bradley, Doug Wilder, etc. According to Dr. E.B. Reuter, ". . . Of successful and best known men that the Negro race has produced, at least thirteen- fourteenths are men of mixed blood. (27) (21)

FACT #85: Blacks are 50 times more likely to have syphilis than Whites.(32)

FACT #86: Twice as many Blacks as Whites receive dishonorable discharge from the U.S. military. (32)

FACT #87: A White woman is 15 times more likely to contract AIDS by engaging in sex with a Negro than with a White heterosexual. (U.S. Centersfor Disease Control)

FACT #88: 90% of U.S. children with AIDS are Black or Hispanic. (36)

FACT # 89-92: In l950, American schools were among the best in theworld. However, vocal elements within our society demanded that the publicschools take on a social engineering role as well as an educational one.Violent disruptions of American education were ordered by the Supreme Courtfor the purpose of breaking down racial barriers. For 30 years, Americanschools have diverted enormous resources into forced integration, quotas,and bussing operations. (Few people realize how expensive bussing is. Annual cost may run into tens of billions of dollars. In l990 California alone was spending $500 million per year on integration. Many school districts spend a quarter or more of their budgets on transportation. In Milwaukee alone and in a single school year, 30,000 staff hours were diverted into calculating the race of students to attend the various schools.) The results? Today's students rank at the very bottom worldwide in science and math, some 40% of American adults are functionally illiterate, and standardized test scores have declined steadily for both Whites and Blacks. Today theaver age White still scores 200 points higher on the combined SAT than the average Black. Americans spend more on education than any other countryin the world and have the worst results. Massive White flight to escape racial zoning has reduced the tax base of every major American city. In l983, after nearly two generations of racial experimentation to promote equality, the research arm of the Dept. of Education could not produce asingle study that showed Black children were learning appreciably better after desegregation. (25) (20) (32)

FACT #93: In Black Africa the average ruler lasts 7 months. (22)(27) (7)

FACT #94: By 1995, a third of U.S. students will be non-Whites and Whites will be a minority in the school districts of 5 states. (32)

FACT #95: Dr. William Shockley, Nobel prize winner for his work inthe invention of the transistor and renowned geneticist as Stanford University, said, "The major cause for American Negroes' hereditary is origin andthus not remedial to a major degree by improvement in environment."

FACT #96: In 1930, about 33% of the world was White. Today, the U.N. estimates that only about 9.5% of the world's population is Caucasian. This percentage is falling rapidly. (34) (27)

FACT #97: Every race has an equal capacity to learn and contribute to civilization and any differences are caused by prejudice and racism.The fact that white skins are associated with civilization is merely a quirk of fortune and coincidence. Any attempt to distinguish the races is motivated by paranoia and hatred. We must prevent any investigation into the subjectand work to melt society together into a receless, nationless, harmonious utopia. (?)

FACT #98: In 1988 there were 9,406 cases of Black-on-White rape andfewer than 10 cases of White on Black rape in the U.S. (32)

FACT #99: For the book INTELLIGENCE AND NATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT, by Raymond Cattell, three distinguished American scholars compare massive evidenceof national I.Q. score averages worldwide and warn against the decline ofany nation whose population reflects declining intelligence. Taking into consideration the differential birthrates of American ethnic stocks, they concluded that American ability is declining rapidly. (21)

FACT #100: The American taxpayers have spent over $2.5 TRILLION tryingto upgrade Blacks since the l960's. (6)

FACT #101: QUOTES "The Negroes' rude ignorance has never inventedany effectual weapons of defense or destruction: they appear incapable of forming any extensive plans of government or conquest: and the obvious inferiority of their mental faculties has been discovered and abused by the nations of the temperate zone." --Edward Gibbon, the great historian and authorof THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE, (V.III, pg. 277) "Wherever you find the Negro everything is going down around him, and wherever you find the White man you see everything around him improving." --RobertE. Lee, to Col. Thomas H. Carter, May, l965

SOURCES

African Business Magazine, Dec. '91

American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 92, pg 822+

American Renaissance, Dec. '90, Box 2504, Menlo Park, CA 94026

American Sociological Review, Vol 45, pg. 859

Basham, A.L., The Wonder That Was India, Grove Press, New York, NY1954

Buckley, William F. syndicated column, Jan. 5. 1993

"But What about Africa?" Harper's, May '90

"The Christian Heritage of South Africa Under Attack!",Peter Hammond, Herald the Coming, Dec. '92.

Coon, Carleton S. The Origin of Races, 1962, Alfred A. Knopf

Fagan, Myron C. How the Greatest White Nations Were Mongrelized -Then Negroized, Sons of Liberty Books.

Fields, Dr. Ed, The Dangers of Interracial Marriage, PO Box 1211,Marietta, GA 30061

Howells, William. Mankind So Far, Doubleday, Garden City, NY 1945.

Harris, Marvin, 1981. Why Nothing Works. Simon & Schuster, NewYork, NY

Jacob, A. White Man, Think Again! 1965, publ. by author.

Jensen, Arthur R. Bias in Mental Testing, The Free Press, New York1980

Jensen, Arthur R. Straight Talk About Mental Tests, the Free Press.(Macmillan) New York, 1981

McCall's, May '92, pg 76

McGurk, Frank, "A Scientist's Report on Race Differences."U.S. News and World Report, Sept. 21, 1956. Washington, D.C.

Pearson, Roger, Eugenics and Race, 1966, Noontide Press

Pearson, Roger. Race, Intelligence, and Bias in Academe, Scott-TownsendPublishers, N.W. Washington, D.C.

Pendell, Elmer, Sex Versus Civilization, Noontide Press.

Putnam, Carleton. Race and Reason, 1961, Howard Allen Press, CapeCanaveral, FL

Putnam, Carleton. Race and Reality, a Search for Solutions, 1967,Howard Allen, Box 76, Cape Canaveral, FL 32920

Putnam, Carleton. A Study in Racial Realities, an address at the Universityof California at Davis, Dec. 17, 1964

Scott, Ralph. Education and Ethnicity: The U.S. Experiment in SchoolIntegration, Scott-Townsend. Washington, D.C. 1989

Shuey, Audrey H., The Testing of Negro Intelligence, Social SciencePress, New York, 1966

Simpson, William Gayley. Which Way Western Man? 1978, National AlliancePress, Box 3535, Washington, D. C. 20007

Social Forces, Vol. 69, pg.1+, Sept. '90

"South Africa: Time to Choose Sides" Soldier of Fortune,Dec. '89.

Snyderman, Mark, and Rothman, Stanely. The IQ Controversy, the Mediaand Public Policy. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ 1990.

Stell v Savannah-Chattham County Board of Education, U.S. DistrictCourt, Southern Georgia, May 13, 1963.

Taylor, Jared, Paved with Good Intentions: The Failure of Race Relationsin Contemporary America. 1992, Carrol & Graf. New York, NY

World Almanacs, '88, '89, '90, '91, '92

United Nations World Census, 1990

Van Loon, Henrick, 1940, Van Loon's Geography, Garden City Publ.

The Voice, Feb. 27, 1990.

Waddell, L. A. The Makers of Civilization, 1929, Angriff Press, Hollywood,CA

Weisman, Charles A. America: Free, White and Christian, 1989, SFA,Box 766-c, LaPorte, CO 80535

Weisman, Charles A. The Origins of Race and Civilization, 1990, SFA

Weyl, Nathaniel. The Geography of American Achievement, Scott-Townsend,Washington, D.C. 1989.

Martin Luther King (Man Behind the Myth) by Des Griffin.

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American Civil Rights Review

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Race and Reality

CHAPTER III from Carleton Putnam’s

“RACE AND REALITY - A SEARCH FOR SOLUTIONS"


THE FACTS

It would be wise at the beginning to set down the elementary statistics regarding the current performance of the Negro as a race in America. Although there could be no debate about these figures, and although the sole controversy raged over why they were what they were, nevertheless they remained in themselves an important introductory part of the evidential picture.

The American Negro on the average produced per capita eight times as many illegitimate children,{1} six times as many feeble-minded adults, nine times as many robberies, seven times as many rapes and ten times as many murders as the White man.{2} Conversely the Negro race produced one-sixth as many individuals with an Intelligence Quotient over 130, that is, in the gifted person category.{3} These were the undisputed facts concerning the performance and behavior of the Negro in the United States.

Overseas, in the only completely Negro republic in the Western Hemisphere, the Republic of Haiti, where the Negro had been on his own, so to speak, since 1844 one found the following situation from a self-government standpoint. After the Negroes massacred the last of the White population in 1804, Haiti remained a part of Santo Domingo until 1844 when it became a separate "republic." Between 1844 and 1915 only one Haitian President completed his term of office. Fourteen were ousted by armed uprisings, one was blown up, one was poisoned and another was hacked to pieces by a mob.

Between 1908 and 1915 the revolutions and assassinations increased so rapidly that a United States military occupation was needed to restore order. This lasted from 1915 to 1934. Thereafter followed twelve years of rule by a mulatto elite which ended in the resumption of control by the black military in 1946. Since then wholesale corruption and political murder have been the rule.{4}

Such was the more recent record of the Negro in the Western Hemisphere, and it could be duplicated on a descending scale throughout Africa.{5} The only question concerned the cause—was it faulty education and social deprivation, that is to say, environment, or was it something else? Environment was the exorcistic word, the abracadabra of the Negro movement. It was the catch-all excuse, heard from Zanzibar to Seattle, covering a period in time from the dawn of history to the present—although one might suppose, in the words of one writer, that in 6000 years the Negro's luck would have changed at least once.

Indeed it seemed to me it could reasonably be argued that with all due allowance for the environmental excuse, the Negro's current performance could stand, for the moment at least, as Exhibit A in my roster of evidence against the equalitarian. I emphasized the word, because the difference between evidence and proof was vital. The distinction was constantly neglected by equalitarians to confuse discussion. As one of their additional techniques of deceit it consisted in challenging isolated items of evidence as falling short of absolute proof, regardless of how strong a circumstantial case the item made, and then deliberately avoiding an assembly of such items with its cumulative significance.

We would soon see that the weight of the evidence, the balance of probability, in every area of comparison between the White man and the Negro, favored the existence of innate differences in both intelligence and temperament. This was true whether one studied anatomy, histology, physical anthropology, kinesthetic maturation rates, electrophysiology, psychology or historical experience. In some of these areas the balance was less conclusive than in others, but in all it was on the side of innate differences, and the total taken together could not be called other than convincing.

Thus while world-wide performance admittedly did not provide absolute proof of the Negro's genetic limitations, it was certainly no evidence whatever in his favor. It was suggestive evidence against the equalitarian dogma. In this sense I could offer it as my introductory exhibit.

One came next to a more obviously probative item. In 1950 C. J. Connolly, Professor of Physical Anthropology at Catholic University, published certain findings in a book which Dr. James Papez of Cornell called "a reliable study of considerable scope the like of which has not appeared in recent times." The book was entitled The External Morphology of the Primate Brain and in part involved the study of 60 brains of Whites and Negroes.

The nature of Dr. Connolly's findings might be summarized in his own words:

"Comparing the two large groups of Whites and Negroes, while the variability is large and there is much overlapping, the mean values reveal significant differences. The dimensions correlate well with what we might expect from a knowledge of the cranium in the two races. The Negro brain is on the average relatively longer, narrower, and flatter than the brain of the Whites. The frontal region, as measured by the projectional distance to midpoint of central sulcus, is, relative to the total length of the brain, larger in male Whites than in Negroes, while the parietal is larger in Negroes than in Whites . . . . It can be said that the pattern of the frontal lobes in the White brains of our series is more regular, more uniform than in the Negro brain . . . . The White series is perhaps slightly more fissurated and there is more anastomosing of the sulci . . . . It is a matter of frequencies."{6}

The same conclusion had been reached many years earlier by Poynter and Keegan, who found that "the sulci and gyri of the Negro brain are undoubtedly less complex and easier of interpretation than those of the Caucasian."{7}

No evidence was brought forward, by the hierarchy or anyone else, to contradict these findings, although an abortive effort was made to evade their implications. Some critics argued that not enough was known about the function of the frontal lobes to evaluate the significance of the differences.

The reply here could be quick and decisive. The functional aspect of these lobes had been studied by Ward C. Halstead, bio-psychologist and Professor of Experimental Psychology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, who wrote: "The frontal lobes are the portion of the brain most essential to biological intelligence. They are the organs of civilization-the basis of man's hope for the future."{8}

Wilder Penfield, brain specialist and Professor of Neurology and Neuro-surgery at McGill University, considered at the very top of his profession, confirmed Dr. Halstead's position in these words: "The whole anterior frontal area on one or both sides may be removed without loss of consciousness. During the amputation the individual may continue to talk, unaware of the fact that he is being deprived of that area which most distinguishes his brain from that of the chimpanzee. After its removal, there will be a defect, but he may well not appreciate it himself. The defect will be in his ability to plan and take initiative . . . although he may still be able to answer the questions of others as accurately as ever."

Freeman and Watts reached somewhat the same conclusions: "It is not a question of intelligence in all this [consideration of the function of the frontal lobes], it is a question of the employment of intelligence . . . . Intelligence is not a function of the pre-frontal regions, nor is it altered by cleancut removal, except indirectly . . . . Something else in the personality is more important and presumably that something else is motivation."{10}

Not only did the size and the degree of sulcification (fissuration) of the frontal lobes imply certain specific capacities. They were in general a measure of evolutionary development. The frontal lobes of the rabbit were smooth. Connolly himself had noted "there is a degree of correlation between the sulcal pattern and the development status of the animal in the series of primate forms."{11}

The only other attempt at evasion I had heard in regard to Connolly's studies was a complaint that his sampling had been too small. The reply could again be pointed. If the hierarchy questioned the sampling, why had they never presented a better one? The hierarchy had the funds and the help of the great foundations, the opposition did not. Was it possible that the hierarchy feared to conduct further studies? I left the question open, but I had no hesitation in classifying Connolly's material as Exhibit B, my second item of evidence.

Now for the third. In 1934 F. W. Vint of the Medical Research Laboratory, Kenya, Africa, published the results of a comparative study of Negro and European brains in which he found that the supragranular layer of the Negro cortex was about 15 per cent thinner than the Whites.{12} On the significance of this finding one could quote Dr. George: "Since structure is a guide to general functions in all those activities that have been adequately analyzed, it would seem rash to disregard structure in any consideration of the higher mental functions. In this connection it seems very significant to me that the cells of the infragranular layer have extensive primary connections with the lower brain centers while the connections of the cells of the supragranular layer are largely intracortical. This is powerful evidence of their primary participation in the special functions of the cortex—the organ of civilization."{13}

Thus the thickness of the supragranular layers, which increases as one moves up the scale from animals to man, could be said to be another measure of evolutionary development. The supragranular layers in the dog are one-half the thickness of those in the ape, and the thickness of the ape's only three-fourths the thickness in man."{14} In the case of the Negro their relative thinness again suggested his position on the evolutionary scale.

Vint went further. He both confirmed a significant simplicity in the convolutional pattern of the Negro and in addition discovered racial differences in the cyto-architecture of the frontal cortex—a paucity of large pyramidal neurons and an excess of small primitive cells in this area.{15}

To my knowledge, the only attempt yet made to discredit Vint's findings consisted in the suggestion that differences in health or preservative techniques between the European brains which were measured in Europe and the Negro brains which were measured in East Africa might have caused differences in shrinkage which would invalidate his findings. Dr. George replied that there was no reason to assume that such shrinkage would affect the Negro's supragranular layer without at the same time affecting his lamina zonalis, or the visuosensory area of his infragranular layer, which Vint had found to be thicker in the Negro than in the White.

Again any new studies by those who might wish to contradict Vint were notable by their absence. And so here we had Exhibit C.

Next one came to the subject of brain weight which Simmons had attempted to confuse. There could be no argument about the fact that, other things being equal (such as sex, body size, proportion of parts and sulcification), the weight of the brain correlated with intelligence. This was true throughout the series of vertebrate animals. A 300-400 pound alligator had a brain of about 15 grams—and little sense. A 300-400 pound porpoise had a brain weight around 1700 grams and was noted for its intelligence.{16}

Among human races numerous studies had been made of the comparative weights of White and Negro brains with results that all fell within the range of about an 8-12 per cent lower weight for the Negro brain. Such studies were published by Bean, Pearl, Vint, Tilney, Gordon, Todd and others.{17}

 I had never seen any findings which disputed these, although constant efforts like Simmons' occurred to confuse the issue by injecting variables which properly were eliminated in the initial hypothesis. The evidence was simply that, as a racial average, the Negro brain was lighter than the White and that this, in turn, indicated a lower average level of intelligence and evolutionary grade.{18} In the words of Dr. Coon, "among living populations—absolute brain size is generally, although not necessarily individually, related to achievement."{19}

In point of fact, in brain-weight comparisons one passed beyond a matter of simple evidence and approached the field of positive proof. But for the moment I was satisfied simply to classify the material as Exhibit D.

The preceding Exhibits from the sciences of anatomy and histology had recently gained support from physical anthropology. By the evidence of fossil remains in Europe and Africa, Dr. Coon's Origin of Races{20} had documented the hypothesis that the White race crossed the evolutionary threshold from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens some 200,000 years ahead of the Negro.

In this book Coon referred to the "great variability of twentieth-century human beings in evolutionary grades [emphasis mine] as well as in racial lines." He also said: "It is a fair inference that fossil men now extinct were less gifted than their descendants who have larger brains, that the subspecies which crossed the evolutionary threshold into the category of Homo sapiens the earliest have evolved the most and that the obvious correlation between the length of time a subspecies has been in the sapiens state and the levels of civilization attained by some of its populations may be related phenomena."

Coon pointed out that certain regions of the earth south of the equator, among them Central and South Africa, were areas of refuge during the Pleistocene and formed what might be called stagnation points where evolution was notably retarded, both in the development of man and other forms of life. "The survival of Homo erectus in these antipodal Edens," Coon continued, "was not disturbed until no earlier than about 30,000 years ago, almost a quarter of a million years after the first appearance of Homo sapiens in regions nearer the center of evolutionary activity."{21}

No serious attempt was made to refute the hypothesis of The Origin of Races, although a smoke screen of undocumented general denials and prolix evasions of the issue appeared in the journals. Theodosius Dobzhansky challenged the likelihood of parallel evolution, only to be met in Coon's rebuttal by specific examples of such evolution, by the probability of peripheral gene flow and by other documentation.

Montagu, of course, had his well publicized innings and was similarly answered.{22} We needed only to note that on October 25, 1963, the Literary Supplement of the London Times in a special number devoted to the leading scientific books of 1963 referred to The Origin of Races as "a landmark in the development of the science [of physical anthropology]." Here, then, was Exhibit E.

 Again comparatively recently, methods had been developed for measuring the speed of kinesthetic learning from birth to the first years of life—learning, that is, which involved the transition from uterine to infant patterns of muscular reflex and control. This speed seemed to be inversely correlated with the ultimate complexity to be attained by the cerebral cortex, which supported the established observation that in all mammalian life full mental stature develops early in direct relation to cerebral simplicity. Thus, neonatal kinesthetic development is more rapid among gorillas than among chimpanzees, and much faster among chimpanzees than among human infants.

It was consequently logical to assume that differences in the rate of kinesthetic maturation between human races would have a bearing upon the complexity or evolutionary status of the structure of their brains. In 1956 Marcelle Geber made studies of normal infants in Kampala, Uganda, for the World Health Organization. She discovered that developmental milestones were reached several times more rapidly by Negro than by White infants.{23} To my knowledge there had been no attempt to disprove her findings.{24} And so Exhibit F.

A second new science which suggested a difference in evolutionary grade was the study of the electrophysiology of the brain. It investigated the living brain by analyzing its wave emissions, their cerebral location and the brain's electrical responses to various stimuli.

In 1953 a leading electro-encephalographist, A. C. Mundy-Castle, published a study of 66 Bantu-speaking African natives and 72 European Whites. He found five different categories of difference between the two groups, the most interesting, perhaps, being the lower response to flicker on the part of the Negroes. Flickers were created by high-speed electronic stroboscopes. These synchronized light stimuli were insistent and urgent enough so that a directing mechanism alerted the entire brain, and the response given was a measure both of cerebral complexity and stability.

Nathaniel Weyl pointed out that a null or impoverished response to flicker implied "a failure of the brain to develop, in the areas of imagination, visualization and power of conceptual thought, toward anything approaching maturity."{25} Mundy-Castle summed up his own conclusions as follows: "Our main impression was that they [the Africans] reacted in a far more simple way than did the European group."{26}

To move this evidence into the area of proof would require further testing and the isolation of possible environmental factors, but no one could question the suggestiveness of the results or fail to wonder why a well-financed hierarchy so carefully avoided the subject. I could regard it as Exhibit G.

One came now to the fields of genetics and psychology. Racial genetics dealt with the transmission of physical structure from generation to generation among races. It explored also the extent to which the effect of physical structure might be modified by environment. Genetics alone was valueless in a study of the Negro problem unless one first had established the existence of anatomical and physiological differences. Thereafter it became of decisive importance.

Psychology, on the other hand, resembled the material in Exhibit A. The study of the performance of the mind was not directly probative of innate differences; it was open in varying degrees to the challenge of environmental influence, and of course lent itself readily to the equalitarian technique of chicanery. But as in Exihibt A, there was a broad suggestiveness about its findings, and certain data that seemed more than suggestive.

Turning first to genetics, no need existed now-a-days to prove the inheritance of racial structure. Races by definition were simply gene pools of distinguishable and distinctive physical characteristics whose anatomy, insofar as it involved the brain, produced corresponding mental differences. The same could be said of the whole nervous system and of the endocrine glands.{27} I had already considered the views of a number of geneticists on this point.{28}

What remained to make clear was the relative importance of inherited racial differences as against differences produced by differing environments. The equalitarian, and his prototype the social or cultural anthropologist of which Mead and Montagu were such good examples, argued that while inherited traits might have some bearing on behavior they were lost in the sea of cultural influences. This was the core of social anthropology—man had something no animals possessed, namely, culture, and through culture he offset inheritance almost completely. But social anthropologists never asked the question: To what extent had the culture first been created, and then sustained, by genetic traits?

Fortunately the answer was available in studies conducted with identical twins raised apart in radically different environments. Here the inheritance was the same—only the environment differed. The results had been published{29} and as usual remained uncontradicted by any scientific counter-facts. Although the effect varied somewhat with different traits, the over-all influence of heredity was found to exceed that of environment in a ratio of about 3 to 1. Certainly this had an important bearing on the Negro problem and deserved its place as Exhibit H.

The field of psychology had been fought over more than any other. Yet once one got past the barricade of the exceptional Negro, which had no relevance to the essential point,{30} all the evidence was again on one side. Audrey Shuey compiled the results of forty years of research in her book, The Testing of Negro Intelligence,{31} and Dr. Garrett summarized them as follows:

"1. The I.Q.'s of American Negroes are from 15 to 20 points, on the average, below those of American whites.

"2. Negro overlap of white median I.Q.'s ranges from 10 to 25 per cent—equality would require 50 per cent.

"3. About six times as many whites as Negroes fall in the 'gifted child' category.

"4. About six times as many Negroes as whites fall below 70 I.Q.—that is, in the feeble-minded group.

"5. Negro-white differences in mean test score occur in all types of mental tests, but the Negro lag is greatest in tests of an abstract nature—for example, problems involving reasoning,  deduction, comprehension. These are the functions called for in education above the lowest levels.

"6. Differences between Negro and white children increase with chronological age, the gap in performance being largest at the high school and college levels.

"7. Large and significant differences in favor of whites appear even when socioeconomic factors have been equated."

To take a specific example, a research project{32} in 1963 among Florida Negroes, a project supported by the federal government and therefore scarcely chargeable to bias against the Negro, was compared by Dr. Garrett{33} with a test of White children run by Drs. Terman{34} and Merrill on a normative sample of the White child population across the country.

There were 1800 Negroes involved and 3000 Whites. Garrett did not hesitate to use the country-wide White figures against the Florida Negro figures in this case because tests taken in the Southeast among White children disclosed I.Q.'s as high or higher than the Terman figures.{35} Perhaps the improvement of education in all sections of the United States in the last quarter-century accounted for the difference (the Terman tests were made 1937), but in any case the comparison could not be held to be unfair to the Negro:

IQ Intervals White Negro Rating Ratio White to Negro
130+ 4.45 .1 Very Superior 44 to 1
120-129 8.2 .3 Superior 27 to 1
110-119 18.1 .7 High Average 26 to 1
100-109 23.5 5.0 Average 4.7 to 1
90-99 23.0 14.0 Average 1.64 to 1
80-89 14.5 28.0 Low Average .5 to 1
70-79 5.6 30.6 Borderline .2 to 1
Below 70 2.6 21.1 Defective .125 to 1
Average IQ 101.8 80.7    

Regarding this table Dr. Garrett commented:

"1. The average IQ of the Negro children is 80.7. The average IQ of the White children is 101.8.

"2. Five per cent of the Negroes achieved IQ's above the average White child. Conversely, 89 per cent of the White children achieved IQ's above the average Negro child.

"3. In the High-Average and Superior groups are found 31 per cent of the White children, and 1.1 per cent of the Negro children.

"4. In the Average or Normal group are 46.5 per cent of the White children, and 19 per cent of the Negro children.

"5. The Borderline and Defective groups contain 8.2 per cent of the Whites, and 50.2 per cent of the Negroes.

"6. The average Negro pupil (whose IQ is 80.7) cannot go beyond a national-standard Seventh grade curriculum; for half the Negro group, the Fifth grade is the maximum.

"7. Only one per cent of the Negroes are intellectually equipped (110 IQ and above) to do acceptable college work."

No attempts any longer arose to dispute the facts disclosed by such studies. The equalitarian response consisted solely of the old environmentalist argument that the tests reflected a condition caused by White injustice.

Garrett the year before had had something to say on this aspect of the matter. At the September 1961 meeting of the American Psychological Association, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues had passed the monotonously typical, undocumented resolution declaring that the evidence developed over a quarter-century pointed overwhelmingly to the fact that differences between Whites and Negroes were not innate. It even went so far as to say that "no evidence exists that leads to the conclusion that such differences are innate." Garrett answered this resolution in the American Psychologist for May of 1962, by a statement relegated as usual to the Letters section. In it he pointed out that there had been exactly five cases in which efforts were made to equate as far as possible{36} Whites and Negroes for environment—that is, for socio-economic background—and in every one of these cases the results contradicted the resolution.

After covering the data{37} in some detail Garrett summarized it as follows: "Negro overlap of white norms when groups are matched for various educational and socio-economic factors does not increase markedly as compared with overlap in random samples. This is true for elementary, high school, and college groups. Instead of the evidence for diminished differences between Negroes and whites of comparable status being 'overwhelming' as the SPSSI statement asserts, it is, in fact, nonexistent."

To any student interested in the balance of the evidence in this admittedly complicated area, one could recommend a reading of Garrett's analysis. It was certainly Exhibit I.

Thus we arrived at the last of the categories of evidence—the area of historical experience. In a sense it was an extension backward of Exhibit A, a vista of perpetually deficient performance, but here the hierarchy had developed two contradictory themes of response.

On the one hand they argued that the Negro had been isolated by geographical barriers from contact with civilizing influences and that White groups so isolated did no better than the Negro. On the other they advanced claims that the Negro had created magnificent civilizations in Africa, hitherto lost to history but now being discovered as their ruins were unearthed. One had no difficulty in demonstrating that both these themes were specious.

As far as isolation was concerned, I could answer the hierarchy out of the mouth of one of their own star authorities in anthropology, A. L. Kroeber, who, in an unguarded moment, wrote: "All in all, Negro Africa lies open enough to the main Eurasian centers to have presumably experienced a slow cultural 'bombardment' that constantly mingled new traits with old, foreign with acclimated, and acclimated elements with those indigenously evolved. Through the centuries and millenia, everything got worked over until it took on the native local color."{38} Arab traders on the sea and Arab caravans overland were in touch with Africa south of the Sahara since ancient times, and more recently the period of European colonization occurred.{39} None of this lifted the Negro out of his primitive condition.

As for the collateral argument about isolated and equally backward White groups, no one denied that White men at various periods had lived in caves; no one claimed that civilization blossomed spontaneously from all races at any particular stage of their development. Little doubt remained that it first arose in the so-called "fertile crescent" of the Middle East and spread from there gradually to the rest of the now civilized world. The point was that the Caucasian and Mongolian races, whether or not they were living in caves, more often than not proved responsive tinder to the flame of civilization when brought in contact with it, whereas the Negro as a race literally never responded. This did not imply that Caucasians and Mongolians had always responded. Relict groups existed among both races. But in the case of the Negro the whole race except for the occasional individual had always been, and still was, relict.

Regarding the opposite and conflicting argument that the Negro had developed "magnificent" civilizations now lost, I had pointed out in Race and Reason that there had been no "magnificent" Negro kingdoms in Africa in any civilized sense, that such barbaric cultures as existed were almost certainly intrusive, that the Moors and Ethiopians were not Negroes, and that the Nubian dynasty in Egypt was a period of retrogression.{40} However, in recent years efforts had been made by the hierarchy to glorify the ruins of Zimbabwe in Southern Rhodesia and to make these now appear to support the "magnificent" kingdoms claim. A word about them might therefore be justified.

One could see at a glance that the Zimbabwe ruins were large and brutal in their impact. They were essentially primitive. While the labor which originally built them was concededly Bantu, the hierarchy argued that the culture and leadership behind them were Negro as well. Such, for example, was the view of the author of the chapter on Zimbabwe in the publication Vanished Civilizations of the Ancient World,{41} priced at $28.50 and published in 1963. It was the sort of superficially impressive presentation which the hierarchy could afford to make, and needed to make, in lieu of facts.

The photographs were excellent—too excellent. All one needed to do was to compare any of the views of Zimbabwe with pictures of the Acropolis at Athens, and he no longer cared whether the complex was indigenous in either labor or inspiration. The contrast was enough. As Timbuktu produced no Thomas Aquinas, so Zimbabwe produced no Parthenon.

Those who still wished to carry on the intrusive vs. indigenous debate could note that in the rubble of Zimbabwe had been found porcelains of the Ming period. Since the Negro was never known to engage in maritime trade these porcelains appeared to students outside the hierarchy to have been brought in by a non-Negro ruling class.{42} The most recent survey of the subject, made by Dr. Robert Gayre, concluded that "there is absolutely no evidence at all that Zimbabwe and the other similar sites were built by the Bantu [Negroes], except as laborers."{43}

Thus it went throughout Negro Africa. Apparently equalitarian writers were so self-deluded they could not realize that their own photographs discredited everything they were trying to prove. Having failed elsewhere to uncover anything to substantiate their claim of equality, they now sought in historical ruins and relics evidence which, when presented, confirmed the opposite of their case. The facts from history were as Arnold Toynbee stated them: "It will be seen that when we classify mankind by colour the only one of the primary races, given by this classification, which has not made a creative contribution to any one of our twenty-one civilizations is the Black Race."{44}

Driven from their conflicting defenses of isolation and lost ruins, some equalitarians finally retreated to the excuse of climate and disease, to the argument that tropical maladies and the heat were enough to account for the Negro's condition. I knew of no scientists who advanced this argument, but it was frequently heard from laymen.

Here again one needed only to reply that, on the one hand, there were many parts of Africa where the climate was good and, on the other hand, other parts of the world which had produced great civilizations where the climate was bad. Moreover, for a hundred years the Negro had been free of both tropical diseases and the incubus of climate in the old ex-slave settlement at Chatham, Ontario. Yet his performance there on intelligence tests followed the standard pattern.{45} In fact tropical diseases no longer could be blamed for the Negro's relative performance in the Southern United States.

The truth of the matter was that whatever influence climate and disease may indeed have had upon the Negro over tens of thousands of years, the result had by now become innate through evolutionary processes. I could paraphrase Nathaniel Weyl and state that "the fundamental barrier is less the action of climate and disease on the living generation than its cumulative action, over an immense time span, in forming the race."{46}

So now in ten exhibits the evidence was in from current Negro performance, from anatomy, histology, physical anthropology, kinesthetics, electrophysiology, genetics, psychology and history. Not one of these areas showed any support for the dogma of innate equality. All of them pointed to inequality, to a difference in evolutionary grade. Some of the data could be attacked as insufficient to constitute absolute proof; other materials were scarcely open to this objection. Taken together, the total must be conclusive to any reasonable mind.

1. The Negro Family: The Case for National Action, 1965, Office of Policy Planning and Research, U.S. Department of Labor.

2. Uniform Crime Reports, 1963, Federal Bureau of Investigation.

3. Audrey Shuey, The Testing of Negro Intelligence, 2nd Ed., 1966, New York. Hereafter cited as Shuey.

4. Liberals sometimes argue that other, non-Negro South American countries have similar records. The facts are that only Bolivia approaches Haiti in such indices as low life-expectancy, high illiteracy, low per capita consumption of newsprint, low per capita gross national product and low political stability, and all the Bolivian situation indicates is that neither the Negro nor some Andean Indian substocks of the Mongolian race are capable of maintaining stable, free societies. It does not qualify the Negro.

5. See infra, p. 61. It may also be noted that between 1945 and 1960, non-White immigrants to England numbered 1,000,000. This influx, mostly Jamaican Negroes, subsequently was curtailed by law. Although these 1,000,000 people constitute less than three per cent of England's population today, they are producing 75 per cent of the waifs now being received in British orphanages. Most are illegitimate and are Negroid in varying degree.

6. C. J. Connolly, External Morphology of the Primate Brain, 1950, Springfield, Ill., pp. 146, 203-4. Father Connolly, mindful of the equalitarian climate of his time and his position as a Catholic, is always guarded in his statements, which are full of qualifications. Thus he may easily be quoted out of context to an opposite effect from the general tenor of his book. He reminds us constantly of the existence of overlap. He raises the possibility that later discoveries or other samplings may provide different evidence. None has. For a further discussion of Connolly's problem, see my speech at Jackson, Miss., Oct. 26, 1961, Congressional Record, Jan. 25, 1962, Vol. 108, No. 10, pp. 830-831.

7. C. W. M. Poynter and J. J. Keegan, "A Study of the American Negro Brain," 1915, Journal of Comparative Neurology, Vol. 25, pp. 183-212.

8. Ward C. Halstead, Brains and Intelligence, 1947, Chicago, p. 149.

9. Wilder Penfield and Theodore Rasmussen, The Cerebral Cortex of Man, 1957, New York, p. 226. Neither Halstead nor Penfield has made any studies of the relative characteristics of White and Negro brains and they are quoted here solely on the significance of the frontal lobes regardless of race. Both men have attacked George and me as "racists" while specifically conceding the accuracy of our quotations on the point in question. They had no evidence of their own to offer on the race issue, showed no curiosity about developing any, and confined themselves to criticizing the evidence of others as "inadequate." I examined this position in detail in The Mankind Quarterly, 1963, Vol. IV, No. 1, pp. 43-44.

10. W. Freeman and J. W. Watts, Psychosurgery, 1950, Springfield, Ill., p. 16.

11. Connolly, op. cit., p. 360. It is of interest to note Brodmann's estimate that no less than 64 per cent of the total surface of the human cerebral hemisphere is hidden in the fissures as against 7 per cent in the lowest monkey. See Penfield and Rasmussen, op. cit., p. 206.

12. F. W. Vint, "The Brain of the Kenya Native," 1934, Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 68, pp. 216-223.

13. Personal letter to the author. See The Mankind Quarterly, op. cit., pp. 44-46.

14. J. S. Bolton, The Brain in Health and Disease, 1914, London.

15. F. W. Vint, op. cit.; also R. Ruggles Gates, Human Genetics, 1946, New York, Vol. II, p. 1138.

16. George Crile, Intelligence, Power and Personality, 1941, New York.

17. Bennet Bean, 1906, American Journal of Anatomy 5:353-432; H. L. Gordon, "Amentia in the East African," 1934, Eugenics Review, 25:223-235. In addition to the difference in brain weight, Gordon notes that the East African native brain grows less after puberty than the European. Bright 14-year-old native boys fail to fulfill their promise. Starting at 10 years, the brain capacity starts less than the White and shows a flatter growth curve; Piersol's Human Anatomy, 9th Ed., 1936, Philadelphia, p. 1196. Piersol says: "Considered in relation to great groups, as to people or races, brain weight has been found to correspond to the general plane of intelligence and culture." Quantity is not the sole factor. Differences in the quality of nerve cells and of their organization may exist; Raymond Pearl, Science, 1934, 80:431-434; Frederick Tilney, The Brain from Ape to Man. 1928, New York; T. Wingate Todd, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 6:97-194; F. W. Vint, op. cit., pp. 216-223; Olaf Larsell, Morris's Human Anatomy, 10th Ed., 1942, Philadelphia, p. 901.

18. See generally, G. von Bonin, The Evolution of the Human Brain, 1963, Chicago.

19. "Race and Ecology in Man," 1959, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 24, p. 156.

20. Supra, p. 33n.
21. Carleton S. Coon, The Story of Man, 2nd Ed., 1962, New York, p. 35. The Story of Man provides for the layman a quicker survey of these materials than The Origin of Races. See the former book, pp. 28-38, 60-62.

22. Scientific criticism of the Origin of Races (there was the usual irrelevant deluge of political criticism) fell into five general categories: (1) Objections that a polytypic species could not evolve into a new polytypic species while keeping the same subspecies. But even Dobzhansky, Coon's best known critic in the field of genetics, admitted that on this point Coon was correct. Dobzhansky, in fact, conceded the point in his Mankind Evolving (1962, New Haven), published before The Origin of Races. Ernst Mayr, the Harvard zoologist and author of Animal Species and Evolution, 1963, Cambridge, was in agreement with Coon; (2) Coon was widely quoted, among others by Dobzhansky, as claiming that mankind evolved five times from Home erectus into Homo sapiens through five separate mutations. Coon, however, made no such claim. He advanced the possibility of threshold crossing in the five subspecies through peripheral gene flow; (3) This raised the question, if peripheral gene flow was in part responsible for the eventual spread of the sapiens mutation to other sub. species, why did it take so long? To which Coon answered, because man alone has culture and culture imposes barriers to gene flow absent in other species; (4) There were a few claims that a parental species cannot breed with its filial species and produce fertile offspring. That this was untrue was clearly demonstrated by J. W. Crenshaw, Jr., in Human Biology, 1963, Vol. 35, No. 3; (5) Why exactly five subspecies? Because man is a large carniverous animal and needs a large living space for each subspecies. Five is the number of faunal regions inhabited by man at that time, and his range was the same as comparable animals. For a cross section of the debate see Current Anthropology, October 1963; also Science, Feb. 15, 1963, p. 638, and April 12, 1963, p. 208.

23. Marcelle Geber, The Lancet, June 15, 1957, Vol. 272, No. 6981, pp. 1216-19 and Courrier, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 17-29, UNESCO, Paris, Jan. 1956.

24. For an effort by a confused layman, indoctrinated by the hierarchy, see infra, p. 98. In answering a question from this layman I have gone into the subject more in detail than seemed appropriate here.

25. Nathaniel Weyl, The Negro in American Civilization, 1960, Washington, D.C., p. 152.

26. A. C. Mundy-Castle, B. L. McKiever and T. Prinsloo, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1953, Vol. V, p. 541. See also P. Gallais, J. Corriol, and J. Bert, Medecine Tropicale, 1949, Vol. 9, p. 693. Also P. Gallais, G. Mileto, J. Corriol, and J. Bert, Medecine Tropicale, 1951, Vol. II, pp. 128-146.

27. Coon, The Origin of Races, op. cit., pp. 115-116, and works there cited.

28. Supra, pp. 27-29.
29. H. H. Newman, F. N. Freeman and K. J. Holzinger, Twins: A Study of Heredity and Environment, 1937, Chicago. Also- Sir Cyril Burt and Margaret Howard, "The Relative Influence of Heredity and Environment on Assessments of Intelligence," 1957, The British Journal of Statistical Psychology, Vol. 10, Part 2, pp. 99-104. Also Sir Cyril Burt, "The Inheritance of Mental Ability," 1958, The American Psychologist, Vol. XIII, No. 1, pp. 1-15. Also D. C. Rife, Heredity and Human Nature, 1959, New York. Also L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling and L. Jarvick, "Genetics and Intelligence: A Review," 1963, Science, Vol. 142, No. 3598, pp. 1477-8. For a short summary, see The Mankind Quarterly, 1964, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 197204.

30. See infra, pp. 92-93.

31. Supra, p. 46n.
32. W. A. Kennedy, V. van de Riet, and J. J. White, "A normative sample of intelligence and achievement of Negro elementary school children in the Southeastern United States," 1963, Society for Research in Child Development, Monograph No. 90, Vol. 28, No. 6. Research supported through the Cooperative Research Program of the Office of Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (C.R.P. 954).

33. How Classroom Desegregation Will Work, 1966, Richmond, p. 9.
34. L. M. Terman, deviser of the Stanford-Binet test used in both studies.
35. See, for example, the studies of Dr. R. T. Osborne of White Children in a Southeastern County, offered as "Intervenors' Exhibit I" in Stell vs. the Savannah Board of Education, 220 F. Supp. 667 (S. D. Ga. 1963), and there subject to cross-examination. Cited hereafter as Stell Transcript. The findings and opinion of the judge will be cited as Stell Opinion. Osborne found a mean White child I.Q. of 103. The Negro mean was 81.

36. It is, of course, impossible to equate completely White-Negro environment without turning the Negro into a White man, which begs the question. One comes as close as possible by taking Negroes from higher strata of their population than the strata from which the Whites are taken relative to their population.

37. Among the more interesting items special reference may be made to F. C. J. McGurk, Comparison of the Performance of Negro and White High School Seniors on Cultural and Non-Cultural Psychological Test Questions, 1951, Washington, D. C.

38. A. L. Kroeber, Anthropology, new Ed. 1948, New York, p. 765.

39. See further Race and Reason, pp. 24-25, 42-45. Also and in more detail, Robert Gayre, "Ethnological Elements of Africa," 1965-6, The Mankind Quarterly, Vol. V, No. 4; Vol. VI, Nos. 1, 2 and 3.

40. Race and Reason, pp. 42-45. See also infra, pp. 107-8.

41. Vanished Civilizations o/ the Ancient World, 1963, Edward Bacon, ed., pp. 34-54.

42. Herman and Georg Schreiber, Vanished Cities, 1957, pp. 191-223.
43. Robert Gayre, "Zimbabwe," 1965, The Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 212-243. Any student disturbed by an apparent contradiction between the primitive nature of the ruins and the intrusive hypothesis should note Dr. Gayre's comment on this point (p. 231) : "It has been argued that the stone building techniques used at Zimbabwe are too poor to have been the work of peoples advanced in technology such as were the Arabs. This cannot be accepted by anyone who has lived in isolation in an overwhelmingly 'native' community anywhere. No matter how you plan, argue, cajole and teach, the final product is a compromise well below your own normal standards, but something the 'native' would not have been able to achieve without all that effort on your part. Missionaries and planters in remote places—even in countries like India which are much more advanced than Africa in basic culture—tolerate standards of building, furnishing and other workmanship well below those of their own native background simply because this is the best a few Europeans in an overwhelmingly 'native' milieu can achieve. That was exactly the situation at Zimbabwe."

44. Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History, 4th impression, 1948, New York, Vol. I, p. 233. As for Toynbee's attempt, as a member of the British establishment, to evade the consequences of this statement, see R

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